The Research Institute Brain and & Behaviour was founded in 1995 and is situated in the Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences (FHML) of Maastricht University. The Institute comprised three Divisions over the period 2003-2008 which were named: Division 1 – Cognitive Disorders, headed by Prof. Dr. Jelle Jolles; Division 2 - Psychopathology, headed by Prof. Dr. Jim van Os and Division 3 – Neurodegeneration and Plasticity, headed by Prof. Dr. Harry Steinbusch (2003-2006) and Prof. Dr. Marc De Baets (2006-2008). The Directors of the Institute since 1995 were Prof. Dr. Jelle Jolles (1995 - Oct. 1999), Prof. Dr. Jaap Troost (Oct. 1999 - Oct. 2003), Prof. Dr. Harry Steinbusch (Oct. 2003 – untill June 2016), Prof. Dr. Nanne De Vries a.i. (June 2016 - Aug. 2017) and Dr. D. Linden since September 2017.

In September 2007, the Brain & Behaviour Institute in Maastricht was transformed into a formal graduate school within Maastricht University called School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNS). In this school, the PhD training program and research program were extended with a research Master program in the domain of neuroscience. At that time, the names of the Divisions were changed to: Division 1 – Brain & Cognition, Division 2 – Mental Health and Division 3 – Neuroscience. In 2009, a group of clinical neuroscience researchers in the university hospital joined Division 1 which subsequently was renamed again to: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience (CNP-CNS).

With regard to research there is an intensive collaboration with the Academic Hospital Maastricht, which was given an impetus by the creation of the new Maastricht University Medical Center+ (MUMC+) on January 7th, 2008. There is also close collaboration with regional academic mental health services.

The Institute of Brain & Behaviour embarked in 1995 on an international initiative to establish the European Graduate School of Neuroscience, or EURON (an acronym combining “Europe” and “Neuron”). EURON was initially established as a federation-like research school, running a doctoral training program for PhD students from eight universities and institutes in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands. Currently the school consists of 11 partner universities of which Maastricht University, and in particular the School MHeNS is the coordinator. In 2002, EURON successfully applied for formal recognition as ‘Research School’ by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). The research school EURON was officially established and accredited in 2003.